Lossy compression

Začnem trochu zoširoka, ale nevzdávajte to hneď na začiatku, pointa príde.

Jedna zo spoločností Elona Muska, Neuralink, sa snaží vyvíjať niečo, čo volajú brain-machine interface. Vpodstate čip, ktorý sa dá implantovať do mozgu a môže slúžiť na rôzne účely. Napríklad na ovládanie vecí na diaľku, na ovládanie protéz, pre ľudí, ktorí stratili niektorú z končatín… dlhodobý vizionársky cieľ je umožniť ľuďom symbiózu s umelou inteligenciou.

Toto samozrejme otvára ani nie že plechovku červíkov, ale priamo sud červíkov, ktoré sa rozliezajú na všetky možné strany, pričom ten najtučnejší z nich je samozrejme ten, že ľudia, ktorí si v hlave nosia okrem svojej inteligencie ešte aj tú umelú a dokážu s ňou priateľsky spolunažívať a spolupracovať, už nie sú tak úplne… homo sapiens. Už sú iný druh. A tu sa možno nebavíme o príliš ďalekej budúcnosti, lebo Musk pred pár dňami oznámil, že už majú opice, ktorým voperovali prototypy, s ktorými sa môžu hrať videohry. Túto výbornú tému si odložíme na niekedy neskôr.

Ale viete, čo by znamenalo, keby ľudia mohli komunikovať cez takýto interface? Slová sú ťažkopádne. Mám v hlave nejakú predstavu, myšlienku, … stav, ktoré sa snažím niekomu porozprávať, ale musím to stlačiť do slov, ktoré si potom na druhom konci rozhovoru druhá osoba rozbalí do svojich predstáv, myšlienok… a stavov. V počítačovej brandži sa tomu hovorí, že sa dáta zbalia, skomprimujú, a potom na druhom konci rozbalia. A jednou z podmienok dobrej kompresie je, aby nebola stratová. Pri balení sa k dátam dokonca pridávajú kontrolné súčty a iné fintičky, ktoré zabezpečia, že sa dá v cieli overiť, že to rozbalené je naozaj presne to, čo bolo zbalené. Toto pri slovách nemáme.

Len tak dúfame – niektorí implicitne, niektorí si na to explicitne dávajú pozor – že dokážeme dobre vyjadriť to, čo chceme. Keď sa niekto pýta, na čo nám je literatúra, na toto. Dáva nám slová.

Predstavte si stôl, rodina večeria, rozprávajú sa, ako pekne vonku sneží, o plánoch na zajtra a ako chutné je jedlo. Ale ja aj keď sedím pri stole, tak sa mi hlavou preháňa ešte kopu ďalších vecí, od toho, čo všetko sa dnes nestihlo, cez dlhodobé frustrácie, po existenčné otázky prečo sme tu, a kam ideme. A potom si predstavím, že toto je môj vnútorný svet a všetci ostatní majú tiež svoj. V niečom možno podobný ale principiálne, štatisticky, nevyhnutne, tak odlišný, že pre mňa pravdepodobne cudzí, a do tohto sveta sa rozbalia moje skomprimované slová. 

Niektorí ľudia vedia dobre baliť. Dostojevský by vo svojom románe najprv na 20 strán opísal ten stôl, čo bolo na večeru a kto pri stole sedel. Ale potom by nám aj vedel povedať, čo sa komu preháňalo hlavou. Dosť dobre na to, že ak máme tú trpezlivosť sa tým prehrýzť (a nevzdali sme povinnú literatúru hneď v prvom ročníku na strednej), tak nahliadneme aj do vnútorného sveta postáv. Aj jemu sa určite niečo strácalo, ale v zásade to vedel.

Dnešný svet krátkej prelietavej pozornosti je priamo nastavený tak, že nás odúča od hlbokej zmysluplnej komunikácie. Máme deep learning, deep dreaming, deep kadečo, čo sa vzťahuje na neurónové siete, ale kedy ste sa naposledy s niekým naozaj porozprávali? Nie o každodenných obyčajnostiach, ale o tom, čo ho trápi, čoho sa bojí, čo jej vadí, čo plánuje? Také tie veci, čo sa ťažko komprimujú.

Ten čip v mozgu? Veľa problémov, ale minimálne jedna dobrá vec by z toho mohla vzísť: ľahšia komunikácia, ktorá sa nebude musieť spoliehať iba na slová. 

Víkendové surfovanie

staré IKEA katalógy

Is It a Cheetah?

However, schools are to extraordinarily intelligent children what zoos are to cheetahs. Many schools provide a 10 x 12 foot cage, giving the unusual mind no room to get up to speed. Many highly gifted children sit in the classroom the way big cats sit in their cages, dull-eyed and silent. Some, unable to resist the urge from inside even though they can’t exercise it, pace the bars, snarl and lash out at their keepers, or throw themselves against the bars until they do themselves damage.

MasterWiki – “ukradnuté” z MasterClass, stručné ale zadarmo 

Neuralink demonstrates its next-generation brain-machine interface

Optimal Peanut Butter and Banana Sandwiches

So, how do we make optimal peanut butter and banana sandwiches? It’s really quite simple. You take a picture of your banana and bread, pass the image through a deep learning model to locate said items, do some nonlinear curve fitting to the banana, transform to polar coordinates and “slice” the banana along the fitted curve, turn those slices into elliptical polygons, and feed the polygons and bread “box” into a 2D nesting algorithm.

The Pandemic Isn’t Forcing Moms Out of the Workforce — Dads Are

We also need to recognize that the way women get dragged into the role of primary caregiver isn’t always explicit — it’s insidious. Maybe a husband tells his wife that she’s just “better” at handling the toddler’s tantrums, or that the 10-year-old won’t listen to him the way she listens to her mom. He doesn’t remember the name of the kids’ pediatrician — because he’s not the parent who takes off of work when they’re sick — to make their appointment, so his wife might as well do it. He has no idea what his daughter’s shoe size is, or even that she needs new shoes at all. It’s the myth of the “male bumbler” — the absurdity of men believing themselves fit to run the world, but unable to figure out how to do the laundry or put a child down for a nap.

When Women Crowdfunded Radium For Marie Curie

She needed the radium for her ongoing research. But the element was expensive, and Curie was living off a single professor’s salary while supporting her two teenage daughters. Her husband and collaborator Pierre, with whom she shared the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics, had died in 1906.

The Last Fifth Grade of Emerson Elementary – čítali sme s deťmi, páčilo sa im

Víkendové surfovanie

Torching the Modern-Day Library of Alexandria

The stations—which didn’t so much scan as photograph books—had been custom-built by Google from the sheet metal up. Each one could digitize books at a rate of 1,000 pages per hour. The book would lie in a specially designed motorized cradle that would adjust to the spine, locking it in place. Above, there was an array of lights and at least $1,000 worth of optics, including four cameras, two pointed at each half of the book, and a range-finding LIDAR that overlaid a three-dimensional laser grid on the book’s surface to capture the curvature of the paper. The human operator would turn pages by hand—no machine could be as quick and gentle—and fire the cameras by pressing a foot pedal, as though playing at a strange piano. […]

It was strange to me, the idea that somewhere at Google there is a database containing 25-million books and nobody is allowed to read them. […] It’s there. The books are there. People have been trying to build a library like this for ages—to do so, they’ve said, would be to erect one of the great humanitarian artifacts of all time—and here we’ve done the work to make it real and we were about to give it to the world and now, instead, it’s 50 or 60 petabytes on disk, and the only people who can see it are half a dozen engineers on the project who happen to have access because they’re the ones responsible for locking it up.

I asked someone who used to have that job, what would it take to make the books viewable in full to everybody? I wanted to know how hard it would have been to unlock them. What’s standing between us and a digital public library of 25 million volumes?

You’d get in a lot of trouble, they said, but all you’d have to do, more or less, is write a single database query. You’d flip some access control bits from off to on. It might take a few minutes for the command to propagate.

Neuralink and the Brain’s Magical Future

Because, as the human history case study suggests, when there’s something on the planet way smarter than everyone else, it can be a really bad thing for everyone else. And if AI becomes the new thing on the planet that’s way smarter than everyone else, and it turns out not to clearly belong to us—it means that it’s its own thing. Which drops us into the category of “everyone else.” […]

He sees it as only a matter of time before superintelligent AI rises up on this planet—and when that happens, he believes that it’s critical that we don’t end up as part of “everyone else.” That’s why, in a future world made up of AI and everyone else, he thinks we have only one good option: To be AI. […]

The pace of progress in this direction matters a lot. We don’t want to develop digital superintelligence too far before being able to do a merged brain-computer interface.

Before European Christians Forced Gender Roles, Native Americans Acknowledged 5 Genders (Finds Them And Kills Them je úžasné meno)

Stredoškoláčky videli, že by mladí volili Kotlebu a Kollára, tak vymysleli súťaž o tom, ako funguje štát